Proses Pembuahan pada manusia

| June 22, 2013 | 0 Comments

 

Pembuahan adalah proses peleburan antara satu sel sperma dan satu sel ovum yang sudah matang. Sebelum terjadi poses pembuahan, terjadi beberapa proses sebagai berikut. Ovum yang telah masuk akan keluar dari ovarium. Proses tersebut dinamakan ovulasi. Ovum yang telah masak tersebut akan masuk ke saluran Fallopii.

Jutaan sperma harus berjalan dari vagina menuju uterus dan masuk ke saluran Fallopii. Dalam perjalanan itu, kebanyakan sperma dihancurkan oleh mukus (lendir) asa di dalam uterus dan saluran Fallopii. Di antara beberapa sel sperma yang bertahan hidup, hanya satu yang masuk menembus membran ovum. Setelah terjadi pembuahan, membran ovum segera mengeras untuk mencegah sel sperma lain masuk. Proses pembuahan ini terjadi di bagian saluran Fallopii yang paling lebar.

Proses Pembuahan pada manusia

Proses Pembuahan pada manusia

Hasil pembuahan adalah zigot. Kemudian mengalami pertumbuhan dan perkembangan sebagai berikut:

1. Zigot membelah menjadi 2 sel, 4 sel, dan seterusnya.

2. Dalam waktu bersamaan lapisan dinding dalam uterus menjadi tebal seperti spons, penuh dengan pembuluh darah, dan siap menerima zigot.

3. Karena kontraksi oto  dan gerak silia dinding saluran Fallopii, zigot menuju ke uterus dan menempel di dinding uterus untuk tumbuh dan berkembang.

4. Terbentuk plsenta dan tali pusat yang merupakan penghubung antara embrio dan jaringan ibunya. Fungsi plasenta dan tali pusat adalah mengalirkan oksigen dan zat-zat makanan dari ibu ke embrio, serta mengalirkan sisa-sisa metabolisme dari embrio ke peredana darah ibunya.

5. Embrio dikelilingi cairan amnion yang berfungsi melindungi embrio dari bahaya benturan yang mungkin terjadi.

6. Embrio berusaha empat minggu sudah menunjukkan adanya pertumbuhan mata, tangan, dan kaki.

7. Setelah berusia enam minggu, embrio sudah berukuran 1,5 cm. Otak, mata, telinga, dan jantung sudah berkembang. Tangan dan kaki, serta jari-jarinya mulai terbentuk.

8. Setelah berusia delapan minggu, embrio sudah tampak sebagai manusia dengan organ-organ tubuh lengkap. Kaki, tangan, serta jari-jariny telah berkembang. Mulai tahap ini sampai lahir, embrio disebut fetus (janin).

9. Setelah mencapai usia kehamilan kira-kira sembilan bulan sepuluh hari, bayi siap dilahirkan.

Jika ovum yang sudah masak tidak dibuahi oleh sperma, jaringan penyusun dinding rahim yang telah menebal dan mengandung banyak pembuluh darah akan rusak dan luruh/ runtuh. Bersama-sama dengan ovum yang tidak dibuahi, jaringan tersebut dikeluarkan dari tubuh lewat vagina dalam proses yang disebut menstruasi (haid).

Sumber : Anatomi tubuh manusia

Oleh : dr. Setiaji Budiyono

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